Another story from the Robert McNamara archives.
Before becoming Secretary of State, he worked at Ford on car safety. He described their testing programme in The Fog Of War.
I said, “What about accidents? I hear a lot about accidents.”
“Oh yes, we’ll get you some data on that.” There were about forty odd thousand deaths per year from automobile accidents, and about a million, or a million two injuries.
I said, “Well, what causes it?”
“Well,” he said, “it’s obvious. It’s human error and mechanical failure.”
I said, “Hell, if it’s mechanical failure, we might be involved. Let’s dig into this.” I want to know, if it’s mechanical error, I want to stop it.
“Well”, they said, “There’s really very few statistics available.”
I said, “Dammit, find out what can we learn.”
They said, “Well, the only place we can find that knows anything about it is Cornell Aeronautical Labs.”
[Cornell] said, “The major problem is packaging.” They said, “You buy eggs and you know how eggs come in a carton?”
I said, “No, I don’t buy eggs. I never have — my wife does it.”
Well, they said, “You talk to her and ask her: when she puts that carton down on the drain board when she gets home, do the eggs break?”
And so I asked Marg and she said “No.”
So Cornell said, “They don’t break because they’re packaged properly. Now if we packaged people in cars the same way, we could reduce the breakage.”
We lacked lab facilities, so we dropped the human skulls in different packages down the stairwells of the dormitories at Cornell. Well, that sounds absurd, but that guy was absolutely right. It was packaging which could make the difference.
Testing and iteration by dropping skulls down stairs. Smashing!